December, 2019 , Volume  4, Issue 3
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1
GAY ARGOT: BEYOND THE CODED WORDS AND MEANINGS OF LAVENDER LEXICON
Dr. Jovelyn M. Cantina

GAY ARGOT: BEYOND THE CODED WORDS AND MEANINGS OF LAVENDER LEXICON
ABSTRACT:
Gay is a language is evolving and with its changing nature, this language needs to be documented for posterity reasons. It has to be analyzed especially its morphology. This study focuses at analyzing the features and functions of language used by gays who are studying and working in the higher education institutions. The corpus is solely restricted to the Facebook posts of the 18 gay students and five faculty of a higher education institution in Zamboanga del Norte, Philippines. The posts are copied and are subjected to morphologic analysis. In here, the vocabulary or expressions of the gays are examined in terms of their structure and meaning. The gay terms are then classified according to how the gay words are formed. An informal interview to the respondents through group chat is conducted to identify the exact meanings of the gay argot and the functions of these terms. Based from the corpus, gays construct their language through simple reversal, simple reversal with affixation, substitution, letter insertion, clipping, clipping with affixation, clipping with repetition, straight word with affixation, stylized reversal with affixation, proper names and common names, sound association, image association, metathesis, and camp names. The study concludes that homosexuals use gay argot as their shield from the disapproving patriarchal society, feminization technique, humorous effect, metaphorical way, and secretive in-group communication. Moreover, gay words are informal, non-standard, impolite, and some are taboo. This linguistic research recommends in developing a monograph of the gay argot which contains the process of forming the language with meaning, etymology and sentences to provide reference to heterosexuals.   Keywords: gay argot, coded words, meanings, lavender lexicon  

248-262 Download
2
STRATEGIES MATTER: A COMPARISON ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF FILM SHOWING AND LECTURE-DISCUSSION ON STUDENTS' WRITING TASK
Josephine Asuncion R. Emoy

STRATEGIES MATTER: A COMPARISON ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF FILM SHOWING AND LECTURE-DISCUSSION ON STUDENTS' WRITING TASK
ABSTRACT:
In classroom instruction, strategies are seen as important tools that motivate, energize and guide students toward better and improved class participation and comprehension and performance. Specifically, English writing activities are viewed by students as challenging or difficult tasks. This is where strategies become helpful in improving students' performance. This is an experimental research which included forty first year students of Central Philippines State University (CPSU) taking up Literature subject who are identified to be at-risk in the English writing task. This was conducted during S.Y. 2017-2018. The entire study ran for a period of four weeks or eight class meetings where students were asked to write reflection papers, explanation essays, reaction papers and narrative essays. Divided in two groups, the controlled group used the lecture-discussion, while the experimental grouped used the film-showing. Statistical tools used were mean and paired t-test. Results revealed that there was a significant difference on the respondents' writing task before and after film showing. Likewise, a significant difference was also found on respondents' writing task before and after lecture-discussion, implying that both groups had improved in their writing scores using both interventions. Finally, there was no significant difference between lecture-discussion and film showing, which simply means that whichever strategy a teacher would use, both would still be effective in improving students' writing proficiency.

263-269 Download
3
ON THE CUSP: TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL ERROR ASSESSMENT IN PUBLIC ANNOUNCEMENTS
Josephine Asuncion R. Emoy

ON THE CUSP: TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL ERROR ASSESSMENT IN PUBLIC ANNOUNCEMENTS
ABSTRACT:
Public announcements play a vital role in public information. In fact, they have been accepted as part of the social and economic life of communities where they are seen posted in walls, doors and bulletin boards of schools, market places, stores, malls, highway/roads, waiting sheds, hospitals, terminals, plazas, constructions sites, food establishments, among others, conveying messages to target audience. Whether these announcements are made to inform, instruct, sell products, or promote a business, it is necessary to ensure that they are clear, concise, and free from ambiguity. Hence, this paper aimed to assess the textual and grammatical errors found in public announcements within Kabankalan City, Negros Occidental. A descriptive documentary survey was used since it mainly utilized photos of public announcements. Results revealed that among the public places, malls and stores had the highest number of errors, while the plazas had the least. Moreover, the most common error was in the substance (Substance Error), or inaccuracies in capitalization, punctuation and spelling, followed by Lexical Error (errors in terms of word formation and word selection), and Syntactic Error (errors in terms of sentence structure coordination/subordination and ordering) with the same frequency. The least error committed was in the Semantic Error (miscommunication and ambiguous communication) implying that though the public announcements were not grammatically accurate or polished, they were able to convey the message or the information that they wish to deliver or express to the general public, which is considered as the most important recipients of these public announcements.

270-276 Download
4
CORPUS ANALYSIS OF NON SEXIST LANGUAGE STRATEGIES REFLECTED IN TERTIARY STUDENTS WRITTEN COMPOSITION
Arlene D. Talosa

CORPUS ANALYSIS OF NON SEXIST LANGUAGE STRATEGIES REFLECTED IN TERTIARY STUDENTS WRITTEN COMPOSITION
ABSTRACT:
The study generally aimed to determine the non-sexist language strategies employed or reflected on the written composition of students through content-analysis. Specifically, the study determine the profile of the students on age and sex.  Thirty-six (36) written compositions written by the promising English teachers of the College of Teacher Education at Cagayan State University at Aparri for the academic year 2018-2019 served as corpus which were coded and analyzed to determine the strategies of non-sexist strategies employed. The study utilized the descriptive- qualitative research design. Descriptive was used as profile of the students in terms of sex and age was determined. The qualitative part of the study is on the content analysis of the non-sexist language strategies utilized in the students written compositions.  The corpus analyzed were the four- paragraph descriptive composition about a teacher. Choice of title is open. The theme of analysis is Non Sexist Language strategies. The study found that the most occurred non-sexist language strategies on the written compositions of the promising teachers are neutralized pronouns used in coordination (he or she), typography (he/she) and grammatical neologisms (s/he).  Plural pronoun ‘they’, plural ‘noun’ and metonymic modulation (police officer instead of policeman). Thus, the study shed some light on the categories of non-sexist language strategies employed by promising language teachers on their written composition. It is believed that after having provide an empirical evidence of non-sexist practices, academic texts used by language teachers should integrate change of word order in binary expressions such as women and men to move away from masculine linguistic normativity and to strengthen the use of non-sexist language More so, Language teachers should encourage usual practice of non-sexist strategies in habituation for more positive reactions to gender-fair linguistic forms.  The sample corpus for analysis may however be considered too few for general view and the corpus analyzed is only limited to descriptive genre,  it is recommended that further studies in the area of sexist and non-sexist language using larger corpus using other written genres be conducted to validate the findings of the present study.   Keyword: Non-sexist language, Corpus Analysis, Written Composition,  

278-285 Download
5
A CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR SUCCESSFUL
Nader Iranpour

A CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR SUCCESSFUL
ABSTRACT:
New communication methods point out the disadvantages of existing security models in identifying threats and challenges to infrastructure of new technologies. To solve this problem a new information security management model is required to meet today’s security challenges. This new model aims to protect business information systems and to secure operational environments within organizations. Efficient use of this model is dependent on the alignment of organization’s information security architecture with other organizational architectures such as business, information and communication infrastructure. In this research I’m looking to present a model that can be used to implement the information security management system to have the following characteristics: ·         To be based on organization’s business and to align information security with the organization's business goals. ·         To be independent of the environment, size and culture of the organization, and can be implemented in any environment. ·         To be independent of any specific technology and can be implemented in all industries and regulatory systems. ·         To be capable of supporting all information security related standards. To develop this model, various relevant models in this field have been analyzed, also, the criteria for setting information security goals, challenges to implementing the information security management system, key factors contributing to a successful implementation of the system and the accomplishment of goals in the different organizations were identified. Finally, by integrating these two, not only does the resulting model have all the positive points of existing models but it can also meet all the information security goals of the organization. According to the proposed model, the information security management system will be implemented in six phases, which are respectively, Preparation, Project definition, Design, Development, Monitoring and Improvement. The first two phases of this model take place prior to implementation, and the next four phases that are based on the Deming cycle and will be analyzed in this paper deal with implementation.   Keywords: Information Security Implementation Model, Information Security Management System Implementation Challenges, Information Security Management System Implementation Success Factors

286-304 Download
6
MENTAL PERCEPTION OF MIDDLE ECONOMIC CLASS ABOUT INDIGENOUS AND MULTINATIONAL PRODUCTS
Muhammad Faizan Jamil

MENTAL PERCEPTION OF MIDDLE ECONOMIC CLASS ABOUT INDIGENOUS AND MULTINATIONAL PRODUCTS
ABSTRACT:
Globalization is a diversified phenomenon that caters social, economic, cultural, political and environmental aspects of human life. Globalization enables humankind to interact each other, share and present social, economic and cultural attributes through different ways and resources. Where globalization facilitate nation states and their representatives to share their particular attributes at world level, there is also a surge of dominance on the basis of economic hegemony. To enhance economic domain in the world, arise of multinational corporations is intensively vivid at global sphere. Multinational companies use host countries as economic market to sell their products at massive level to dominate indigenous market of host country. The purpose of this study was to analyze the mental perception of middle economic class about the indigenous and multinational products. Quantitative study was conducted on the middle economic class of Judicial housing under the perspective of positivism approach.  Sample of 90 respondents (including 45 men and 45 women) was selected through from A. B and C section of phase 1. T-test analysis were performed to evaluate the difference of mental perception about indigenous and multinational products. Results revealed that, residents of middle economic class in Judicial housing society prefer multinational products as compare to local commodities. Results further explain that women are having high preference towards multinational products as compare to men.  

305-315 Download
7
MODELING MICRO-INDENTATION TEST BY USING FINITE ELEMENT METHOD TO ESTIMATE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND EXTRACT STRESS STRAIN CURVE
Ahmed. F. Elmisteri, Abdelbaset R. H. Midawi, Farag M Shuaeib

MODELING MICRO-INDENTATION TEST BY USING FINITE ELEMENT METHOD TO ESTIMATE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND EXTRACT STRESS STRAIN CURVE
ABSTRACT:
Mechanical testing shows an important role in finding the fundamental properties of engineering materials as well as in generating new materials and in managing the quality of materials for use in design and construction. If a material is used as a part of an engineering structure, it is important to know that the material is strong and rigid enough to overcome the loads that it will experience in service. As a result, engineers have developed a number of experimental techniques for mechanical testing of engineering materials. Instrumented indentation test is one of them. It is introduced as a method that finds hardness, modulus of elasticity, yield stress and extracted the stress-strain curve, instead of traditional tensile test. Whereas it gives a possibility to determine the mechanical properties for small specimens, and material under operation in the field. Several researchers have attempted to evaluate this method experimentally and to investigate the factors affecting it by using different shape of indenters. In the same regard, this research work is conducted to evaluate by finite element simulation methods. One type of industrially significant steel was selected; it is namely AISI1010 steel; and two shapes of indenters, blunt and sharp (Spherical, and Vickers) were used. The finite element simulation has been performed by the finite element ABAQUS simulation program, and its results were then compared with the experimental test results that extracted from Nanovea instrumented indentation test machine. The results obtained have demonstrated that good agreement between the experimental and the finite element simulation results within 5 % difference for young’s module and 2.3 % for yield strength. Whereas excellent agreement is observed at the elastic region and the beginning of the plastic region for engineering stress-strain curve. Finally, it is to be emphasized that the obtained results are more applicable for the tested materials, and further research is recommended to accommodate other materials as well and to confirm the generality of this method. 

316-330 Download
8
WHERE THE HEART BEATS: DISCOVERING HISTORICAL EVENTS AND THEIR INFLUENCES OVER THE CHARACTERS IN ELAINE CASTILLO’S AMERICA IS NOT THE HEART
Jose Angelo Lorenzo S. Gomos and Maria Luisa S. Saministrado

WHERE THE HEART BEATS: DISCOVERING HISTORICAL EVENTS AND THEIR INFLUENCES OVER THE CHARACTERS IN ELAINE CASTILLO’S AMERICA IS NOT THE HEART
ABSTRACT:
Although considered as works of fiction, novels are written to share the personal or shared truths that are as significant to the readers as they are to their authors. Many truths are found within the narrative of Castillo’s AINTH - from the colonization periods, to government abuses, to ideologies initiated for insurgency, to the diaspora of Filipinos abroad. This study attempts to examine Elaine Castillo’s America Is Not the Heart to explore the historical events in the Philippines that are mirrored in the novel. It analyzes how the characters' reactions to the historical events reflect the social realities of Filipinos abroad and in their own country. The result reveals that with the historical events that shaped the country into what is now known today, the characters have likewise gone through trying times that the country has experienced. Despite their displacements, they have moved on to a different place tougher and optimistic about starting a new life and holding on to their past memories in their land of origin, keeping their identities, and taking great pride of where they come from.   Keywords: Filipino, Immigrant, identity, historical events, social realities  

331-344 Download
9
ENHANCING STUDENTS' READING COMPREHENSION SKILLS THROUGH COOPERATIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
Josephine Asuncion R. Emoy

ENHANCING STUDENTS' READING COMPREHENSION SKILLS THROUGH COOPERATIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
ABSTRACT:
This study focused on how the cooperative learning environment helped to enhance the students' reading comprehension when integrated during the classroom discussion in English 7-Developmental Reading Subject. This study mainly utilized classroom action research wherein the researcher utilized the cooperative learning strategy in introducing and developing the reading comprehension of the 30 Third Year AB major in English students in their reading class. This utilized an adapted survey instrument with 30-item short passages on literal, inferential and critical levels of reading comprehension. It also used statistical tools such as mean, standard deviation and paired t-test in answering the problems. Results revealed that both the male and female participants had closely approximate mastery in their pre-test performance but the females got higher mean score than the males. The females consistently performed well in reading comprehension as revealed in their post-test performance but incredibly the males had progressed as shown in the result after the incorporation of the cooperative learning. Finally, there was a significant difference before and after the intervention of the cooperative learning as shown in the result of the study. Based on the results of the present study, the researcher highly recommends that reading teachers may use cooperative learning in their reading comprehension classes since the students held a generally positive view on the implementation of the cooperative learning strategy in teaching and enhancing reading comprehension.

345-352 Download
10
ABLUTION (WUDU) HEALTH BENEFITS THROUGH COMPARISON NASAL-CAVITY BACTERIAL-CONTENT WITH GOLD-STANDARD AT HIGH-ALTITUDE AREA, TAIF, KSA, VISION 2030 G
Sherifa Mostafa M. Sabra

ABLUTION (WUDU) HEALTH BENEFITS THROUGH COMPARISON NASAL-CAVITY BACTERIAL-CONTENT WITH GOLD-STANDARD AT HIGH-ALTITUDE AREA, TAIF, KSA, VISION 2030 G
ABSTRACT:
This paper were carried for ablution (Wudu) health benefits (HBs) through comparison nasal-cavity (NC) bacterial-content (BC) with gold-standard (GS) at high-altitude (HA) area, Taif, KSA, "Vision 2030". The total mean results NC-BC produced 66.2% quantity, after GS inhalation the NC-BC decreased to 21.4%, while after ablution decreased to 29.4%. The bacterial Spp isolated were Staphylococcus (Staph.) aureus, coagulase negative Staph. (CNS), Staph. epidermidis, Non haemolytic Streptococcus (Strept)., and Escherichia coli (E. coli). The most important bacteria were isolated from NC was in descending gradient: (Staph. aureus, Staph. epidermidis, E. coli, CNS and Non-haemolytic Strept.) were (32, 30, 4, 3 and 3%). After use of GS, the reminded bacteria were Staph. (aureus, and epidermidis) were (5 and 10%). While after ablution the results were recorded (Staph. aureus and Staph. epidermidis); (11 and 16%). That concluded an importance of ablution for HBs and use of each step well to maintain individual's hygiene; five times ablution is best cleaning NC well daily. Where the results confirm the HBs, oozing of a healthy result, the protection against bacterial infectious diseases and their bacterial causes. This emphasized the need for good ablution for every step and continuous regular five times dally, this is from Islam rules for ablution and prayer, which is the pillar of Islam for the person to give HBs. That was recommend the regular ablution for five times and work every step accurately as requested Islam and regular five times daily to gain HBs and personal hygiene for NC at HA area.   Key words: Staph. aureus, CNS, Staph. epidermidis, Non haemolytic Strept., E. coli.

353-357 Download