International Review of Humanities

& Scientific Research

ISSN: 2519-5336

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Year 2017 , Volume  2, Issue 4
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S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1
THE BARANGAYS IN MANDALUYONG CITY: AN ANALYSIS OF THEIR ROLES IN THE DELIVERY OF BASIC SERVICES TOWARD RESPONSIVE AND EFFECTIVE LOCAL GOVERNANCE
Rowena A. Pila, DPA

THE BARANGAYS IN MANDALUYONG CITY: AN ANALYSIS OF THEIR ROLES IN THE DELIVERY OF BASIC SERVICES TOWARD RESPONSIVE AND EFFECTIVE LOCAL GOVERNANCE
ABSTRACT:

Delivery of basic services, it has been said, is the cornerstone towards sound governance. This is the fundamental reason why local government units (LGUs) are created: promoting and advancing the common welfare of constituents and to improve the socio�economic conditions of the whole community. This role is derived from the view that local governments are considered to be �the most proximate� to the people and perform the function of linking national government with local concerns (Ocampo-Salvador, 2000). This proximity �enhances preference matching for public services� and affords LGUs a �better location to perceive the preferences of their communities and respond to their needs� (DAP, 2005). Mandaluyong City is used as the locale of the study. Over the last 20 years, Mandaluyong City is proud to have made significant strides before the Congress enacted the Local Government Code of 1991 (LGC), the enabling law for the �localization� policy. On April 10, 1994, President Fidel V. Ramos signed the conversion of Mandaluyong from municipality to a highly urbanized City. It is in this context that the researcher endeavored to analyze the barangays in Mandaluyong City on their roles in the delivery of basic services.

459-498 Download
2
Authentic Leadership and Organizational Commitment: The Mediating Role of Positive Psychological Capital
Belal Albashiti,Khaleel Hajjaj,Khaleel Hajjaj

Authentic Leadership and Organizational Commitment: The Mediating Role of Positive Psychological Capital
ABSTRACT:

This descriptive and an analytical study present a structural equation model for studying the mediating role of positive psychological capital in the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment. Quantitative data was collected from the case of Al-Azhar University based in Gaza Strip, a context in which the needs for both authentic leadership and a positive and committed academic staff are integral to the entire performance of the university. The results reveal that positive psychological capital insignificantly mediates the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment.

499-510 Download
3
Opinions on the Proposed Re-Imposition of Death Penalty in the Philippines
Severino G. Alviento

Opinions on the Proposed Re-Imposition of Death Penalty in the Philippines
ABSTRACT:

The objective of this study is to find out the opinions of the AB Political Science students and selected professional-respondents on the proposed re-imposition of death penalty in the Philippines. The profile of the AB Political Science students and selected professional-respondents are considered in this study. The researcher utilized the descriptive as well as qualitative methods of research and used the purposive sampling in choosing the respondents. An outline theme and predetermine questions was made before the conduct of the interview. The findings and conclusions of this study are as follows: Majority of the student-respondents are female, residents from the municipalities outside Candon City, Ilocos Sur and members of various protestant churches. On the other hand, majority of the professional-respondents are male and Catholics. Majority of the AB Political science students and selected professional -respondents are not in favor to the proposed re-imposition of death penalty in the Philippines. It implied that they agree that death penalty violates our deepest belief in God as the creator and the redeemer of human life and that execution prevents the repentance and rehabilitation of offenders which is contrary to Christian love and violates the sanctity of human life.

511-519 Download
4
Preliminary Results of Gymnosperm Species Inventory in Caraga Region XIII, Philippines
Julie S. Berame

Preliminary Results of Gymnosperm Species Inventory in Caraga Region XIII, Philippines
ABSTRACT:

The study provides preliminary counts of gymnosperms in Caraga Region Region XIII. It aimed to provide information in determining the species of gymnosperms found in the region. The researcher used qualitative and interview methods in gathering the data. Findings revealed that there were 4 families of gymnosperms were found, namely: Araucariaceae (Cook Pine) endemic and (Almaciga) non-endemic, Cupressaceae (Cypress) endemic, Casuarinaceae (Mountain Agoho) non-endemic, (Agoho) endemic, (Agoho del Monte) endemic and Cycadaceae ( Cica ) non-endemic. They are rare and one of the vulnerable plants; four (4) of them are endemic (not really abundant) and three (3) are non-endemic.

520-533 Download
5
The Coffee Industry in the Municipality of Sigay, Ilocos Sur
By Marife D. Alviento

The Coffee Industry in the Municipality of Sigay, Ilocos Sur
ABSTRACT:

This study aimed to determine the economic potential of the coffee industry in Sigay, Ilocos Sur; the extent of support provided by the government to the coffee industry and the problems encountered by the coffee growers in Sigay, Ilocos Sur. Specifically, it sought to find out the profile of the coffee farmer-respondents in terms of: age, sex, civil status, religion, highest educational attainment and number of years as coffee grower; the economic potential of Coffee Industry in the Municipality of Sigay, Ilocos Sur along employment opportunity and marketability; the extent of support provided by the government to the coffee industry along: financial, training and seminars, and product promotion and marketing strategy; and the problems encountered by the coffee growers in Sigay, Ilocos Sur. The descriptive-survey method of research was used in this study with the questionnaire as the major instrument in gathering data. Based from the finding gathered, majority of the respondents are male (28 or 70.00%), married (27 or 67.50%), whose religious affiliation are protestants or non-Catholic, many of them are elementary graduates (18 or 45.00%), and less than majority are already coffee growers for more than 10 years (17 or 42.50%). Based from the findings and conclusion of the study, the researchers came out with the following recommendations: The local government of Sigay, Ilocos Sur should help improving the coffee industry in their municipality so that it would generate more income to their people and the municipal government; they should find way on how to provide financial support to the coffee growers in Sigay so that there would better opportunity for them to improve the quality of their coffee products; the local officials in cooperation with the coffee growers should aggressively promote their coffee products in other areas and consider importing in other countries for more profit; there should be more trainings and seminars to be conducted by the government so that the coffee growers in Sigay, Ilocos Sur will gain more knowledge and skills on how to make coffee as profitable business; the government should look into the possibility of improving the road from Sigay to the national high way so that there would be a better access in transporting coffee products to markets outside Sigay; lastly, other study should be conducted by other researcher in other places similar to the present study to find out the status of coffee industry in the country as a whole.

534-543 Download
6
Students Learning Styles: Basis for Module Development in Literature
Dr. Jovelyn M. Cantina,Jessie C. Flores

Students Learning Styles: Basis for Module Development in Literature
ABSTRACT:

All human beings have different abilities and each of them has various interests in life. Indeed, every child has unique properties and has his own learner style. The study aims to determine the pattern of the learning styles among the first year 149 BS Criminology students of Jose Rizal Memorial State University System who were enrolled during the second semester of the Academic Year 2015-2016.  The descriptive survey research method was employed in the study which administers Learning Styles Inventory of Honey and Mumford. The statistical tools used were frequency count, mean computations, and chi-square. The pattern that emerged was reflector-pragmatist-activist-theorist. Reflector learner style emerged as the dominant learning style among the respondents. There was a significant difference of the learning style of the students between male and female respondents on the reflector learner style. The type of school they graduated from high school either private or public did not influence their learner style. Moreover, the educational qualification of the parents influences the theorist learning style of the respondents.Thus, this study recommends that instructors generally need to understand the learning styles of their students to fit their teaching strategies and teaching methods. Moreover, instructors teaching Philippine Literature may design instructional materials which would address the learner styles of the students. Students who are strongly dependent upon only one mode of learning should be targeted with specific techniques adapted to their individual learning styles.

544-552 Download
7
Linking Anxiety in Second Language with Students Writing Performance
Dr. Jovelyn M. Cantina

Linking Anxiety in Second Language with Students Writing Performance
ABSTRACT:

Language learning anxiety is a specific anxiety reaction that occurs only when a language learner is thinking about language learning, participating in a language class, or studying a language.  The study aimed to establish how anxiety affects the writing performance among the college students of JRMSU System enrolled in English 12 class during the second semester of the academic year 2015-2016. The correlational research method was employed in the study which administered Cheng English Writing Anxiety Scale (EWAS) and writing performance. The statistical tools used were frequency count, mean computations, t-test, Kruskal-Wallis Test, Mann-Whitney Test, and Spearman Rank. The study revealed that students’ language anxiety was moderate. Findings rejected the hypothesis that test anxiety significantly correlates with students’ academic achievement. Findings also indicate the statistically significant effect of difference on the writing performance of the respondents as to campus and age, yet there is no significant difference as to sex. Moreover, there was no significant difference on the level of anxiety of the students as to age, sex and campus. This study recommends that instructors should seek more effective ways to ease the anxiety that students might feel when learning and writing English so as to support successful language learning experiences.

553-563 Download
8
THE IMPACT OF CULTURAL SYMBOLS ON IDENTITY AND MEANING FORMATION: A SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONIST APPROACH TO CHINUA ACHEBE’S THINGS FALL APART
Mehnaz,Dr. Muhammad Iqbal ,Sayyed Zahid Ali Shah

THE IMPACT OF CULTURAL SYMBOLS ON IDENTITY AND MEANING FORMATION: A SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONIST APPROACH TO CHINUA ACHEBE’S THINGS FALL APART
ABSTRACT:

The present paper makes an attempt to examine how George Herbert Meade’s theory explains people’s use of symbols as a
sense-making tool to elucidate the socialization process, role performance, identity, and meaning formation within the Igbo
society to explain various aspects of human life in the novel Things Fall Apart. This study is significant as it deals with
character analysis of Okonkwo, to see how various roles of son, warrior, husband, father and a clansman are defined in
Igbo culture during different phases of family and social life to clarify how Symbolic Interactionism has given a new
impetus to see society, culture, psychology and relationships. It argues that the physical setting is significant to human
behavior and human actions can be interpreted by the critical analysis of cultural symbols and the way they are deployed. It
concludes that human behavior is based upon assigning meanings and their symbolic interpretations of the objects that
surround them. The SI analysis of the novel clearly indicates that Okonkwo’s self and meaning formation is built on
perceptions of the reactions of his clansman and his self-concept functions to direct his behavior. The development of
different roles changes role and behavior patterns. The internal and external happenings influence role performance,
conflict, struggle and affect the nature, attitude, and self-image of Okonkwo. Moreover, it also affirms that the cultural
symbols for honor, respect, and manliness etc. are not fixed naturally rather these are the constructions of the mind and are
given meaning through interaction of the people.
564-571 Download
9
Adoption of Information Technology in Banking Infrastructure for operational efficiency in  organizational performance.
AJIT KUAMR

Adoption of Information Technology in Banking Infrastructure for operational efficiency in  organizational performance.
ABSTRACT:

This paper investigates whether IT capability bank can create economic value and competitive advantage. The study is based on the influence of banking technology on infrastructure of a Public Sector Bank (called PSB hereafter) and a Foreign Bank (called FB hereafter). For successful organization technological prospective and business strategy must go hand in hand in order to enhance its working capabilities and also to gain a competitive advantage over others the objectives of this paper are to find out the measure deficiency in the IT infrastructure between these banks and also to evaluate its operational efficiency. An analysis by the Computer giant IBM predicts that over the next decade, the pace of technological innovation would reinforce Darwin's Law of the 'Survival of the fittest' and as a result banks are using efficient Management Information System (MIS) and strong technology adoption in working than its competitors.

This micro study will evaluate the IT skills and capabilities of employees working in these banks. As, infusion  of IT in banking operations had become a strategic resource.  The term 'efficiency' in real sense is concerned with-the physical aspect of the actual operational performance of a specific task." It indicates how work is being done; how effectively and efficiently the man-power, money and materials are being utilized to accomplish a task. The study covers an analytical study and anatomy of these bank’s & its  performance in the realm of functions, role, organizational structure and electronic banking services.

IT can provide strategic vision and long term sustainability to the organisation.  Hence through this research study we can conclude that IT is the lifeline that runs through the heart of the banking sector.

572-582 Download
10
IMPACT OF SCHOOL-BASED FEEDING PROGRAM ON THE PHYSICAL GROWTH, ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE, AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF STUDENTS IN HOLY SPIRIT ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, QUEZON CITY
DR. GREGORIO A. REYES,ASST. PROF. MA. LOLITA V. ABECIA

IMPACT OF SCHOOL-BASED FEEDING PROGRAM ON THE PHYSICAL GROWTH, ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE, AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF STUDENTS IN HOLY SPIRIT ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, QUEZON CITY
ABSTRACT:

This study determined the Impact of the School-Based Feeding Program on the Physical, Mental,  and Social Development of the students.  Quantitative Research Method was used in this study.  Quantitative Research Method emphasizes objective measurements and the statistical, mathematical, or numerical analysis of data collected through polls, questionnaires, and surveys, or by manipulating pre-existing statistical data using computational techniques. Quantitative research focuses on gathering numerical data and generalizing it across groups of people or to explain a particular phenomenon.       In terms of benefits under the School-Based Feeding Program at Holy Spirit Elementary School in all 3 aspects obtained the following weighted mean respectively: Physical Development (weighted mean =4.25); Academic Performance (weighted mean = 3.97); Social Development (weighted mean = 3.96) The whole respondents are agreeable as to the benefits their children are receiving from the said program with an overall weighted mean of 4.06. There is no significant difference on the perception of the respondents on the benefits under the School-Based Feeding Program at Holy Spirit Elementary School whey they are grouped according to age, sex and occupation.  Since that there is co-equal result of the respondents assessment whey they are grouped according to age, sex, and occupation reflecting that they are very much satisfied with the result of the program and it has a greater good impact on their children. It is recommendable to make the parent greater number involvement in the program to ease the implementation. 

583-596 Download
11
ASSESSMENT ON JOB PERFORMANCE AND EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION OF BSOA AND BOA GRADUATES IN SELECTED METROPOLITAN TRIAL COURT AND REGIONAL TRIAL COURT IN METRO MANILA
DR. GREGORIO A. REYES,ASST. PROF. RAQUEL G. JAVIER

ASSESSMENT ON JOB PERFORMANCE AND EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION OF BSOA AND BOA GRADUATES IN SELECTED METROPOLITAN TRIAL COURT AND REGIONAL TRIAL COURT IN METRO MANILA
ABSTRACT:

The purpose of this study is to determine the job performance and employee motivation of BSOA and BOA graduates in selected Metropolitan Trial Court and Regional Trial Court in Metro Manila.  Quantitative Research Method was used in this study.  Quantitative Research Method emphasizes objective measurements and the statistical, mathematical, or numerical analysis of data collected through polls, questionnaires, and surveys, or by manipulating pre-existing statistical data using computational techniques. Quantitative research focuses on gathering numerical data and generalizing it across groups of people or to explain a particular phenomenon.  The methodology applied to gain solution in the realization of the study.  The study aims to measure the job performance and employee motivation of BSOA and BOA graduates in selected Metropolitan Trial Court and Regional Trial Court in Metro Manila.  Lastly, findings showed that there is no significant difference on job performance and employee motivation between employees in selected Metropolitan Trial Court and Regional Trial Court in Metro Manila.  Since there is no significant difference on job performance and employee motivation between employees in selected Metropolitan Trial Court and Regional Trial Court in Metro Manila, It is recommended that the institution should maintain or improve what they are doing to keep the employees perform well and be motivated, since it showed that there is no significant difference between job performance and Employees motivation. 

597-615 Download
12
THE SIGNIFICANCE AND EFFICIENCY OF THE UNIFIED MARKETING COMMUNICATION MIX APPROACHES OF  TEXTBOOK PUBLISHER IN THE NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION
DR. GREGORIO A. REYES

THE SIGNIFICANCE AND EFFICIENCY OF THE UNIFIED MARKETING COMMUNICATION MIX APPROACHES OF  TEXTBOOK PUBLISHER IN THE NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION
ABSTRACT:

The study attempted to determine the level of importance and effectiveness of unified marketing communication mix approaches adopted by textbook publishers in the National Capital Region. The study adopted the descriptive method of investigation with prepared survey questionnaire as its primary data gathering instrument. It covered 33 or 80% of the 41 textbook publishers in the NCR, with 98 respondents composed of top management marketing managers, and sales representatives of the said firms.  Textbook publishers in the National Capital Region (NCR) are mostly corporate organizations that have been in the business for more than ten years. Textbook publishers in the NCR do not utilize traditional media for advertising and instead opted to utilize website or online advertising to their advantage; they sparingly make use of sales promotion and public relations approaches, but are adopting direct marketing and personal selling approaches that they consider as important unified marketing communication mix approaches for the textbook publishing business.  Textbook publishers in the NCR do consider their IMC objectives, IMC policies, promotional resources, both the characteristics of their target market and their product, cost of promotion methods, and availability of promotional methods in choosing their IMC approaches.  The textbook publishers in the NCR find the traditional media, public relations, as less effective to the textbook publishing business, but they find textbook sampling, textbook supplements, lecture guides, solution manuals, trade shows, book launching, direct selling, and direct marketing approaches as important and either effective or very effective to their respective business activities. Textbook publishers in the NCR do not differ in their assessments on the level of importance and level of effectiveness of unified marketing communication (IMC) mix approaches they have adopted, specifically with regard to sales promotion, public relations, and direct marketing approaches, but differ with regard to their advertising and personal selling approaches. Based on the conclusions of the study, the researcher presents the following recommendations:  Textbook publishers in the National Capital Region, especially corporate organizations, should adopt appropriate IMC mix approaches in order for them to effectively compete in the business.  Textbook publishers in the NCR should Maximize the utilization of website or online advertising for their business;  Should adopt the following sales promotion approaches, since these are more important and effective to the textbook publishing business: exhibits and fairs, trade allowances, trade incentives, textbook sampling, textbook supplements, lecture guides, solution manuals, trade shows, and book launching. Reconsider the adoption of public relations as part of their IMC mix approaches view of the immense importance of press release, publicity campaigns, and other PR approaches that are not expensive to the promotion of customer awareness of their products.  Maximize the utilization of direct mail to customers and prospects, telemarketing, and internet or online marketing as these are more effective and less expensive to the industry.  Maximize the utilization of traditional personal selling approaches as part of their IMC mix approaches in the business. Textbook publishers in the NCR should always consider objectives of the IMC mix, policies of the firm on IMC mix, promotional resources, characteristics of the target market, characteristics of the product, cost of promotion methods, and availability of promotional methods when they choose their IMC mix approaches.

616-648 Download
13

ONLINE BUSINESS SOLUTION FOR VER1REV ENTERPRISE


NORMAN G. DUARTE

ONLINE BUSINESS SOLUTION FOR VER1REV ENTERPRISE


ABSTRACT:

VER1REV Enterprise is a multi-level marketing company situated in Naga City, Camarines Sur, Philippines. It is the sole marketing distributor of Ionique-CMD, a concentrated trace mineral drops which is harnessed naturally in Great Salt Lake, Utah (USA) by Mineral Resource International (MRI), Inc. Initially, all documents pertaining to sales transaction and product purchase, as well as commission computations based on product sales and personal referral were prepared and done using manual process with the help of Microsoft Office applications. Due to the increasing number of consultants joining the company, the preparation of commissions tends to become slow, inaccurate and ineffective.

To strengthen the hold of VER1REV in the direct selling business, an online system capable of disseminating the company’s mission and vision, core values and advocacy, with the ability of catering the requirements of its sales force (wellness consultants and product distribution channel or PDC) efficiently and quickly; and a facility for managing the over-all marketing operations well is the target of the system requirements.

The system development process requires the use of V-model paradigm, with the inclusion of input-process-output (IPO) model to represent different modules of the system. Open-source programming language XAMPP (XAMPP-Win32-1.7.7-VC9) was used in the development of the program. HTML, PHP and JavaScript were used in the creation of front-end, while MySQL was used for data storage and manipulation. For statistical treatment of data, weighted mean was used to measure different features of the system; such as appearance, functionality, system features and user-friendliness of the system.

649-656 Download
14
TRACING OUT THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH OF PAKISTAN
Muhammad Masood Anwar, Humaira Islam, Saba Farooqi and Dr. Sardar Javaid Iqbal Khan

TRACING OUT THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:

Pakistan is a developing country characterized by low income level ,lack of capital ,low level of industrialization ,low saving ,and rapid growth of population ,burden of external debt, paucity of foreign aid ,deficit in balance of payment .lack of technical and managerial skills, and heavy reliance on export of primary goods etc. Also the domestic resources are inadequate to finance the development needs, to fulfill this gap FDI is an important tool of overcoming weaknesses necessary for economic development. This study analyze the impact of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) on economic growth of Pakistan by using time series data from 1975-2012. Ordinary Least Square (OLS) an econometric method is used to estimate the model parameters. For this purpose the study considered several variables such as Foreign Direct Investment, Imports, Exports industry and GDP growth rate. The results of the study show a positive and significant relation between the GDP and FDI in Pakistan. And variables imports, exports and industry have positive relation with growth rate. It may be suggested that Pakistan should make stronger efforts to attract as much Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) as possible to the foreign exchange sectors in the short term.
657-664 Download
15
Linking Self-Esteem and Speaking Abilities: The Bullies and Victims Experience
Dr. Jovelyn M. Cantina,Janet Grace R. Sarzuelo

Linking Self-Esteem and Speaking Abilities: The Bullies and Victims Experience
ABSTRACT:

Bullying and victimization are serious problems in schools due to their high rates of occurrence and their potentially devastating consequences. One hypothesis that needs to be examined regarding the causation of this problem is whether being a bully or a victim may affect self-esteem and performance of the students.The study aims to establish determine the relationship between the bullying/victimization and the self-esteem and speaking capabilities among the freshman criminology students of JRMSU System during the second semester of the academic year 2015-2016. The correlational research method is employed in the study which administers The Bullying and Victimization Questionnaire (BVQ) Rosenberg Self-Esteem Survey (SES), and speaking capabilities. The statistical tools used are frequency count, mean computations, t-test, Man-Whitney U-test, and Spearman Rank. The Findings accepted the hypothesis that self-esteem does not significantly correlates with students’ speaking abilities. This study recommends for further researches in determining the factors that affect the speaking abilities of the students. Also, a study that surveys not only freshmen criminology students, but also students from other programs regarding the negative impact of bullying experiences will be conducted as this would help to provide a more in-depth understanding of the relationship between bullying behaviors and self-esteem, and speaking abilities. Moreover, gender and age differences will also be considered as variables in future study to identify what group of students had bullying experiences and victimization.

665-676 Download
16
TO DETERMINE THE SMOKING HABITS AND ITS EFFECT ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVELS IN ADOLESCENTS AND EARLY ADULTS AGED 18-23 YEARS IN KING KHALID UNIVERSITY, KHAMIS MUSHAYAT, SAUDI ARABIA
Dr.Vedavalli Sachithananthan

TO DETERMINE THE SMOKING HABITS AND ITS EFFECT ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVELS IN ADOLESCENTS AND EARLY ADULTS AGED 18-23 YEARS IN KING KHALID UNIVERSITY, KHAMIS MUSHAYAT, SAUDI ARABIA
ABSTRACT:

Background: Smoking causes immediate and long-standing effects on exercise and physical activity. In addition to increasing the well-known risks for cancer, heart and respiratory diseases, smokers have less endurance and poor physical performance. Objectives: To determine the smoking habits and its effect on physical activity levels in adolescents and early adults aged 18-23 years of King Khalid University Khamis Mushayat, KSA. Methodology: Khamis Mushayat area near Abha city has been selected for the study. In this area, King Khalid University was selected as the population. One hundred and eighty seven female subjects 18 to 23 years from King Khalid University who smoked cigarettes and 187 females who were non smokers were selected for the study. GPAQ (Global physical activity questionnaire) was used for the survey to assess the level of physical activity (given in Appendix). Also data on height and weight were collected. Results: With respect to body mass index of the smokers and non smokers, a significantly higher percent of the non smokers (57.5%) were of normal weight, while only 28.8% of smokers had normal weight. A majority of the smokers (45.9%) had the smoking habit for 2 years and less, whereas, 27.7% of the smokers smoked for 6 years or above. A significant majority of the smokers (63.2%) underwent physical activity only for 2 days and less, whereas the non smokers involved in physical activity for 6 days or more. Only a very small percent (8.1%) of the smokers exercised for 6 or more days in a week. Among non smokers, a minimum of 16.1% involved in physical activity, three to five days a week. All the participants in the study had mean years of smoking of 9.75 years. We found out that smokers relatively spent less time for physical activity and were more sedentary. Conclusion: In the present study its clear that the students going to University are moderate smokers but their physical activity level is decreased. They usually have trends towards less physical activity and less awareness regarding the ill effects of smoking.

677-683 Download