International Review of Humanities

& Scientific Research

ISSN: 2519-5336



Year 2016 , Volume  1, Issue 1
EFFECT OF LAST IRRIGATION INTERVAL, CUTTING LEAVES WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS AND STORAGE IN DIFFERENT CONDITIONS ON THE SHELF LIFE OF ONION
By: ANWAR RASHID1, ABDURRAB1, HAJI MOHAMMAD2, JAWAD ALI4, FAZAL JALAL5*, MOHAMMAD ILYAS1, ABID KHAN3
Pages: 1-14
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The research study “Effect of last irrigation interval, cutting leaves with different levels and storage in different conditions on the shelf life of onion” was conducted in jabban, Dargai, Malakand Agency in collaboration with department of Agriculture Extension during 2013. Onion bulbs were harvested at three stages i.e four days, eight days and twelve days after last irrigation. Onion leaves were removed at 0 cm, 2.5 cm and 5 cm above the bulb and these bulbs were kept at different storage conditions as dark and open for the two months. The onion bulbs were evaluated for weight loss. The result reveled that different storing conditions (C) significantly affected weight loss. Onion bulbs stored in open condition (under shed) showed minimum weight loss of (09.22 g) while maximum weight loss of (15.11 g) was observed in onion stored in closed dark condition. Last irrigation interval (I) and cutting of onion leaves at different levels (L) have no effect on the weight loss of onion.
Assessment of indoor placement of Pothos (Epipremnum aureum) in Nowshera Region
By: 1JAWAD ALI,1JUNAID KHAN, 3ANWAR RASHID, 5FAZAL JALAL 3MOHAMMAD ILYAS, 2MURAD ALI,4MUHAMMAD ALI ,1HANEEF RAZA, AND 3HAMID KHAN
Pages: 15-20
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An experiment entitled “Where to place Pothos indoor “was conducted at Shah house, Nowshera cantt, during the year 2015. Cuttings of Pothos ( Epipremnum aureum ) cv. Golden Queen were planted in clay pots which were saturated for 24 hours. Southern windows proved to be superior to Eastern, Western, Northern windows regarding plant height, number of leaves per plant, leaf size, stem diameter and root length.
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF TOBACCO CROP PRODUCTION AFTER CREDIT PROGRAM BY ZARAI TARQIATI BANK LIMITED IN RURAL AREA OF DISTRICT MARDAN, PAKISTAN
By: Naushad Khan1*, Munir Khan2* and Shaista Naz3
Pages: 21-32
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The study was conducted in rural area of District Mardan .The major objectives were economic analysis of tobacco crop after credit program of ZTBL on various size of farms. The Universe of the study consists of three tehsils, namely Mardan, Takhth Bahi and Katlang. Purposively from each tehsil two villages namely Gujar Garhi, Rustum, Lund khwar, Sharegarh, Katlang and Jamal Garhi were respectively selected. All beneficiaries of the ZTBL were 260 while among those tobacco growers were 54. The number of growers in tehsil Mardan was 11, Takhth Bahi 7, and Katlang 36. Through questionnaire data were collected and for analysis, percentages, correlation and paired t-test were used. Average tobacco production per hectare after credit was 1993 Kg and before1677 Kg and the result was found non-significant which explains that statistically credit has no positive effect on tobacco production. Average cost per hectare after credit was Rs.159718 and before Rs.81756 and the result was found highly significant at .05 levels. The average return per hectare after credit was Rs.265078 and before was Rs.122392 and difference was Rs.142685. The return after credit was found more than before and the result was found highly significant. The correlation was .151 which explains 15.1% changes in the production when one unit land increases. Problems and constraints were found, high costs of the inputs; complicated procedure of the bank, high interest rate and non availability of loan in time etc by bank in the study area. On the basis of problems and constraints, recommendations were fitted for future policy formulation which is given as loan should be provided to farmers according to requirements; interest rate should be decreased in future; quality seed should be provided on low price in the study area etc.
Ecosystem Carbon Sustainability in Dry Land Of Punjab, Pakistan
By: Asma Hassan*1, Ratten Lal2 and Shahzada Sohail Ijaz3
Pages: 33-50
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Efficient use of carbon (C) is principle goals of achieving agricultural and environmental sustain ability. Thus, this study was conducted in a dry land agro ecosystem in Punjab, Pakistan to compare the C-equivalence (Ceq) of inputs and outputs and theC sustainability index (Cs)for different cropping sequences. Five cropping sequences were; fallow–wheat (Triticum aestivum) (FW) (control), mungbean (Vigna radiata)–wheat (MW), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)–wheat (SW) green manure–wheat (GW) and mungbean-chickpea (Cicera rietinum) (MC).Three tillage systems included moldboard plough(MP), tine cultivator (TC) and minimum tillage (MT).The primary data collected were crop yield and the above ground biomass. Secondary data were collected to calculate C equivalence (Ceq) of inputs and outputs and to compute the carbon sustainability index (Cs). The Ceq of outputs differed among tillage treatments, and were: 135kg Ceq ha-1, 112kg Ceq ha-1 and 80.47 kg Ceq ha-1 for MP, TC and MT, respectively. On the basis mean of two years, Ceq the highest grain Ceq was measured under MP and under SW in winter (1040 kg Ceq ha-1). The maximum Ceq biomass was estimated in winter with MC (2867 kg Ceq ha-1) in summer. However, the highest root Ceq under MT was calculated in winter with MW (9500 kg Ceq ha-1). Under MT, the maximum Cs was obtained with MC for both year in summer (77 and 130). However, in winter of the second year, the highest Cs was estimated for FW (82). These results showed that the efficient use of fertilizers, herbicides, farm machinery and return of residues in the field under MT with legume based cropping system could be the best options to enhance the C sustainability index in dry lands.
EFFECT OF NITROGEN LEVELS ON DUAL PURPOSE USE OF TRITICALE
By: Fazal Munsif and Muhammad Arif
Pages: 51-64
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Field trial was conducted to study the effect of nitrogen levels on dual purpose use of triticale at Agricultural Research Farm, KPK Agricultural University Peshawar during winter 2009-2010. The experiment was consisted of four nitrogen levels (40, 80, 120 and 160 kg ha-1) and cutting treatment (cut and no-cut). Nitrogen levels (N) were kept in the main plots whereas cutting treatment (C) was alloted to the subplot. The experiment was carried out in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement having three replications. The results revealed that nitrogen levels and cutting treatment significantly affected all parameters under study. Interactions between N x C were also remained significant for all parameters except grains spike-1. Increasing nitrogen level up to 120 kg ha-1 resulted in increased yield and yield components but further increase in N level did not increase yield and yield components of wheat. Application of N at rate of 120 kg ha-1 produced higher fresh and dry fodder yield, tillers m-2, plant height, grains spike-1, thousand grain weight, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index of triticale. Cutting suppressed yield and yield components and higher number of tillers m-2, plant height, grain spike-1, thousand grain weight, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index were recorded for no-cut plots as compared to cut plots. It was concluded that N application at the rate of 120 kg ha-1 resulted in higher yield and yield components of triticale and hence recommend for higher productivity. Cutting decreased grain yield of triticale by 13% as compared to no-cut but cut plots also produced green fodder in the fodder scarce period. Thus a cut can be given to triticale at the fodder scarce period during December and January on the cost of 13% loss in grain yield.